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30 Billion “Things” To Consider: How IoT Will Transform Enterprise IT +From IDC to Gartner, there is a lot of talk right now about the Internet of Things (IoT) but we wanted to know what this really means for Enterprise IT organizations. So we decided to ask Scott Hilton, Dyn EVP of Product, six questions on the topic.  +


5 Reasons The iPhone 6 Will Save The Internet of Things +One exciting aspect of the iPhone 6 that has gone unnoticed is its potential to radically accelerate the growth in the Internet of Things or “IoT”. Here are five ways the iPhone 6 matters — profoundly— for this next wave of computing.  +


A "New Approach" to Standards and Consumer Protection +As consumer use of information and communication technology (ICT) products grows, the importance of ICT standards in consumer markets also grows. While standards for manufactured products were once developed at the national level in formal standards bodies, standards for ICT products today are more likely to be developed by informal standards bodies that target global markets, creating new challenges for national consumer protection laws. As part of the process of creating a single market, the EU developed an innovative and successful form of “coregulation” known as the “New Approach” that coordinated the work of legislators and standards developers to reduce technical barriers to trade in the internal market. In order to protect consumer interests in markets for ICT products effectively, another “New Approach” is needed to coordinate the work of global ICT standard-developing organizations with the goals of national and regional consumer protection laws, but the institutional challenges facing such a strategy are daunting. The French DADVSI legislation represents progress in this direction; further progress may be possible by adopting “better regulation” strategies.  +
A Supply Chain of Things: the EAGLET ontology fir highly visible supply chain +Recently, technological developments, such as radio frequency identification (RFID), have facilitated the identification of individual things and information sharing regarding their behavior throughout the supply chain. Such developments have generated the capabilities of a highly visible supply chain (HVSC): a supply chain where the location of arbitrary individual things can be determined at any point in time by all appropriate supply chain partners, made possible by an “Internet of Things” for the supply chain, referred to as a “Supply Chain of Things.” A critical component of a Supply Chain of Things is an ontology to facilitate the visibility and interoperability of things along the supply chain. As a result, the objective of this paper is to define an ontology that leverages the availability of an individual thing's (object) identification information within the context of a standard set of economic phenomena that support multiple views in a range of data architectures. Our design science approach begins with a set of ontological primitives and gradually defines structuring principles that provide guidance for the design of supply chain systems that are characterized by increased visibility and interoperability and which facilitate management of and collaborative decision making about supply chain activities. The EAGLET ontology is named after its five primitives: Event, AGent, Location, Equipment, and Thing. The following are some of its unique characteristics: location and equipment are recognized as ontological primitives, and creating and destroying of containment structures is explicitly modeled; the economic phenomena underlying the supply chain are defined from an independent view, as opposed to a trading-partner view; the supply chain is defined from three different perspectives: the physical flow, the chain of custody, and the chain of ownership; event sequences that resemble the economic scripts underlying the supply chain are defined.  +
Accommodating the Needs of iConsumers: Making Sure They Get Their Money's Worth of Digital Entertainment +The current methods of distributing music and film on the mass-market, either off-line or on-line, raise two types of consumer protection issues. First, consumers are not always in a position to know what they can and cannot do with their digital hardware and content. A lack of proper information and the ensuing failure of the products to meet the consumer’s expectations inevitably leads to discontent. In addition, as weaker party in the transaction, consumers have often no other choice but to accept or refuse the restrictive terms of use, even if these could be regarded as unfair. This paper examines whether European law is amenable to accommodate the iConsumer’s needs, and if so, in what form.  +
AllSeen Alliance. An Open Source Project Building the Framework of the Internet of Things +The AllSeen Alliance is a Collaborative Project managed by the Linux Foundation delivering the widespread adoption of billions of products working together in an interoperable “Internet of Everything” through the AllJoyn framework in an open environment, with a thriving technical community and a vibrant ecosystem.  +
Apple unveils move towards health and home in new iPhone software +Software will gather and store health-related data and offer integrated control for 'smart home' devices like lighting.  +
Attitudes and Behaviors of Mobile Network Operator Customers: Contributions toward empirically founded marketing strategies for mobile navigation and Internet services +The market for mobile voice communication approaches its saturation level in many industrialized nations. Prices for mobile voice telephony have been and still are under pressure. Against this background, mobile network operators (MNO) are searching for new services which may bring them back to previous revenue growth trajectories. Among these potential innovations are mobile Internet (MI) services in general and mobile network-based navigation services (MNS) in particular. Unfortunately, to date, these kinds of offerings have not been adopted as fast and are not used as extensively as expected by MNO in Germany, but also in other countries around the world. During the past few years, these subscription and usage gaps have triggered quite a number of practitioner publications and scholarly contributions on critical factors explaining consumers initial MI or MNS adoption decisions and subsequent use behaviors. Regrettably, much of this writing is purely speculative and does not incorporate empirical data on attitudes and behaviors of MNO customers in Germany in the context of customer acceptance of MI and MNS offerings. In light of this gap the present book contains an assortment of five empirical papers on MI and MNS acceptance drivers among German-speaking mobile communication consumers. The articles are of interest to both practitioners involved in the development of marketing strategies for MI and MNS as well as business and consumer psychology scholars who are concerned with better understanding the demand for innovative mobile service offerings from a residential customer's perspective.  +


BREAKING NEWS – EU Privacy Reform Agreed +The EU privacy reform providing for the adoption of the EU Data Protection Regulation has been agreed setting a milestone for the future of privacy within the EU. An agreement was found between the European Commission, the European Parliament and the Council on the EU privacy reform that provides for the adoption of: - the EU Data Protection Regulation that will set out consistent data protection rules across the European Union to ensure a better protection of individuals’ personal data in the Digital Single Market and - the Data Protection Directive for the police and criminal justice sector which will ensure that the data of victims, witnesses, and suspects of crimes, are duly protected in the context of a criminal investigation or a law enforcement action facilitating at the same time cross-border cooperation of police or prosecutors to combat crime and terrorism more effectively across Europe.  +


Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions — Communication on future networks and the internet +Over the last decade the internet has brought ab out significant changes in our economies and societies. It has proved a remarkable communi cation and networking infrastructure, adapting incrementally to the needs of its users. It ha s created a world-wide web of knowledge sharing, creativity and collaboration and has been a major driver of globalisation. It has changed communication habits and is redefining the media sector by promoting the convergence of electronic communications and media services. New and traditional players are adapting to the challenges through new business models. The Internet revolution is not over. In the next few years the internet wi ll become much faster due to the rollout of very high speed broadband networks and this will permit the launch of many new interactive media a nd content services. The internet will also become more pervasive; available anytime and anyplace due to the widespread development of low cost wireless broadband and the merging of fixed and wireless communications. An "internet of things" will emerge whereby the web will b ecome the medium for machines, vehicles, appliances, sensors and many other devices to interact. This will provide the basis for many new applications, such as energy monitoring, tr ansport safety systems or building security. Finally it is widely predicted that software de livered as a service over the web will lower costs and raise performance, provoking a large leap in productivity for all businesses, large and small. Effectively deployed, the internet of the future will bring innovation, productivity gains, new markets and growth and jobs in the next decade. Europeans have massively adopted broadband a nd internet services. This is changing the economy and transforming lifestyles. But the bene fits of these significant changes for the European economy will only be unleashed if seve ral challenges are tackled. First the internet economy must be kept open, notably to inno vative business models. This requires the continuation and reinforcement of the current pro-competitive regulation of e- communications markets and appropriate c onsumer safeguards. Secondly, equipping networks for the internet of the future will require: major investments in infrastructure to create a high-speed internet; the development of th e internet architecture to meet future needs; and more access to spectrum on a flexible basis to allow wireless services to take to the air. Third, the exponential increase in internet use will raise security and privacy challenges. Public authorities have a responsibility to make su re that citizens can ha ve confidence that the internet of the future will be easy and accessi ble, safe and respectful of their privacy. This Communication should be seen as a preparatory step towards the internet of the future with a focus on setting the framework condition s for keeping the internet dynamic, open and making it more secure. This Communication looks at these issues, now playing out on the world stage 1 , and translates them in a European context by reviewing the main challenges ahead (section 2) and their related policy challe nges (section 3). In the light of the importance of the internet economy for EU competitivene ss, it also proposes a Broadband Performance Index to monitor developments towards a high-s peed internet infrastructure (section 4). But as Europe modernises itself for the economy of the future - in the context of the Lisbon Agenda post-2010 - it will also be of paramount importance that solid foundations are laid for the growth that can come from this internet of the future. A broader debate on the policy implications of these developments will therefore be needed in the coming months in order to develop the broader policy response to the in ternet as a generalised infrastructure for modernising the economy and society.  +
Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions — Internet of Things: An action plan for Europe +This Communication presents the perspectives and challenges for the development of the Internet of Things (IoT). '''Definition and existing applications of IoT''' IoT is composed of a series of new independent systems operating with their own infrastructures which are partly based on existing Internet infrastructures. IoT can be implemented in symbiosis with new services. It covers three types of communication which can be established in restricted areas (‘intranet of things’) or made publicly accessible (‘Internet of things’): * things-to-person; * thing-to-thing; * Machine-to-Machine (M2M). IoT currently covers several applications such as: * web-enabled mobile phones equipped with cameras; * unique serial numbers or bar-codes on pharmaceutical products; * smart electrical metering systems which provide a consumption report in real time; * ‘intelligent objects’ in the logistics sector (eFreight), manufacturing or retail. '''The challenges of public governance''' According to the European Commission, policymakers should also participate in the development of IoT alongside the private sector. Some challenges are indeed policy-related, as highlighted by the World Summit on the Information Society, which encourages IoT governance designed and exercised in a coherent manner with all the public policy activities related to Internet Governance. Many questions concerning the implementation of the connection of objects arise such as: * object naming; * the authority responsible for assigning the identifier; * ways to find information about the object; * how information security is ensured; * the ethical and legal framework of IoT; * control mechanisms. Faced with these challenges, the Commission proposes to prepare a set of principles underlying the governance of IoT, as well as a decentralised management structure. '''Principles underlying the governance of IoT''' The development of IoT must not take place to the detriment of privacy and personal data protection. In this regard, the Commission intends to publish a Communication on privacy and trust in the information society, as well as launching a debate on the freedom for individuals to disconnect from a network at any time. In order to safeguard information security, the Commission proposes to step up monitoring and protection of critical information infrastructure. Regarding standardisation, the Commission considers it sensible to take advantage of the deployment of Ipv6, making it possible to directly address objects. The Commission also intends to assess existing standards mandates which may include some issues related to IoT, or create others if necessary. In the field of research and development, IoT represents a considerable challenge, insofar as it is related to wide societal problems. In this regard, the Commission will fund research projects in the field of IoT under the Seventh Framework Programme. Furthermore, IoT may also have a role to play in the four public-private partnerships set up by the Commission in the following areas: * ‘green cars’; * ‘energy-efficient buildings’; * ‘factories of the future’; * ‘Future Internet’. These research activities are to be supplemented by the launch of pilot projects under the Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme (CIP). These pilots should help to promote activities related to e-health, e-accessibility, climate change, or helping to bridge the digital divide. The international aspect is also essential, insofar as the Commission intends to intensify dialogue with its international partners in order to establish benchmarks for common principles in the field of IoT. Waste recycling should be facilitated by the implementation of IoT through tags which will make objects easier to distinguish during the process. The Commission is currently concentrating its work more particularly on the availability of appropriate radio spectrum resources and on electromagnetic fields. '''Context''' The Internet has reached a turning point in its development. A network of interconnected computers is to evolve into a network of interconnected objects such as books, cars or electrical appliances. Although IoT is not yet actually implemented, this Communication gives an indication of the technology to come over the next 15 years. (Source:  +
Communication from the Commission — Guidance on the Commission's enforcement priorities in applying Article 82 of the EC Treaty to abusive exclusionary conduct by dominant undertakings +Article 82 of the Treaty establishing the European Com- munity ("Article 82") prohibits abuses of a dominant posi- tion. In accordance with the case-law, it is not in itself illegal for an undertaking to be in a dominant position and such a dominant undertaking is entitled to compete on the merits. However, the undertaking concerned has a special responsibility not to allow its conduct to impair genuine undistorted competition on the common market. Article 82 is the legal basis for a crucial component of competition policy and its effective enforcement helps markets to work better for the benefit of businesses and consumers. This is particularly important in the context of the wider objective of achieving an integrated internal market.  +
Competition Policy: Theory and Practice +This is the first book to provide a systematic treatment of the economics of antitrust (or competition policy) in a global context. It draws on the literature of industrial organisation and on original analyses to deal with such important issues as cartels, joint-ventures, mergers, vertical contracts, predatory pricing, exclusionary practices, and price discrimination, and to formulate policy implications on these issues. The interaction between theory and practice is one of the main features of the book, which contains frequent references to competition policy cases and a few fully developed case studies. The treatment is written to appeal to practitioners and students, to lawyers and economists. It is not only a textbook in economics for first year graduate or advanced undergraduate courses, but also a book for all those who wish to understand competition issues in a clear and rigorous way. Exercises and some solved problems are provided.  +
Competition/Antitrust Challenges in Technology Aftermarkets +Aftermarkets are particularly important to manufacturers of complex technical equipment. The downstream market for maintenance and support of both hardware and software is highly profitable and particularly coveted by proprietary equipment manufacturers, often as a means to recoup their substantial investments in research and development. In many cases these markets are contested by independent service organisations (“ISOs”), which frequently come into conflict with the manufacturers. In this short article we provide a critical assessment of how US and EU Courts and regulators have developed their thinking on aftermarket issues. While there are differences between the way US antitrust and EU competition law is applied, particularly to restrictive agreements, the economic principles set out in the leading US case of Kodak, described below, are widely followed on both sides of the Atlantic. US antitrust and EU competition laws allow independent service organisations to challenge manufacturers’ conduct in aftermarkets, but only in certain limited circumstances. Although there are no shortage of disputes in this area, ISOs have historically struggled to successfully make their case for judicial and regulatory intervention due to the high legal bar set for establishing exploitative behaviour in aftermarkets.  +
Creating Ubiquitous Computing, Virtual Worlds, and the Displacement of Property Rights +Examining one emerging technology, virtual worlds, may provide us with insight about another emerging technology, ubiquitous computing. The rapid increase in both the popularity and economic value of virtual worlds has resulted in a conflict over whether players in these worlds have any property rights with respect to virtual world objects associated with their avatars. A close examination however reveals that even if such rights exist, they can be overridden though the combined use of contract and technology. This observation may in turn provide an insight about the future of real world property. The emerging technology of ubiquitous co mputing shares technological characteristics with virtual worlds such that ubiquitous computing would make a displacement of property rights in real world objects possible in the same way that virtual world technology makes such a displacement possible for potential property rights in virtual world objects. “It is coming because there are too many too powerful institutions vested in its coming, knowing what enormous market possibilities are opened up by the conquest of the everyday. It is coming because it is an irresistible, ‘technically sweet’ challenge, for designers no less than engineers. It is coming because something like it effectively became inevitable the moment our tools, products and services started communicating in ones and zeroes.”  +
Customer Experience in the Internet of Things: Five Ways Brands Can Use Sensors to Build Better Customer Relationships +The Internet of Things is not some pipe dream, Jetsons-esque future state; it is an entirely new paradigm for building relationships. Yet determining when, how, and to what extent to apply connected products and other sensor-generated data to the customer experience remains poorly understood by marketers and digital strategists. Our research finds that the unique opportunity in the Internet of Things is that it has the potential to mutually benefit both enterprise and consumer. Enterprises gain visibility; consumers gain empowerment. This report reveals five use cases illustrating how consumer-facing brands can embrace the Internet of Things to create actual value for businesses and consumers alike.  +


David Orban: Internet of Things +In the episode aired on June 5 of 2024 of Radio 24 David Orban had a conversation with the show’s conductor Enrico Pagliarini about interoperability, morality and biocompatibility of the Internet of Things. The following is the translation of the edited transcript of the interview which was originally recorded in Italian.  +
Des DRM intrusifs dans la voiture électrique Renault ZOE ? +Le contrat de location de la batterie des Renault ZOE prévoirait que le constructeur puisse retirer le droit à recharger la batterie, en cas de défaut de paiement ou de résiliation. Un contrôle que Renault se défend de pouvoir exercer en pratique.  +
Device Democracy. Saving the Future of the Internet of Things +More than a billion intelligent, connected devices already comprise today’s “Internet of Things (IoT).” The expected proliferation of hundreds of billions more places us at the threshold of a transformation sweeping across the electronics industry and many others. Yet, the dream of a smart, safe and efficient future is threatened by subscription fees, ubiquitous advertising and intrusive surveillance. For the IoT to survive the end of trust and successfully scale from billions to hundreds of billions of devices, executives need to rethink the technology strategy, business models and design principles at its foundation. This first report of our study shows that a low-cost, private-by-design “democracy of devices” will emerge that will enable new digital economies and create new value, while offering consumers and enterprises fundamentally better products and user experiences.  +
Digital Consumers and The Law. Towards a Cohesive European Framework +This book provides a critical analysis of how digitisation affects established concepts and policies in consumer law. Based on evidence of the actual experience and problems encountered by consumers in digital markets, the book offers a ground-breaking study of the main issues arising in relation to the application of general consumer and sector-specific law. An interdisciplinary team of researchers from the Centre for the Study of European Contract Law (CSECL) and the Institute for Information Law (IViR), both University of Amsterdam, combine their expertise in general consumer and contract law, telecommunications law, media law, copyright law and privacy law in a joint effort to point the way to a truly cohesive European Framework for Digital Consumers and the Law. Topics in this book include the characteristics of digital content markets and how they relate to traditional consumer law; consumer concerns, reasonable expectations and how they are protected by law; the difficult question of the classification of digital content; legal questions triggered by prosumers and underage consumers; the feasibility and future of the information approach to consumer protection; the role of fundamental rights considerations, and the legal implications of an economy that uses personal data as the new currency. Digital Consumers and the Law is an important analysis for all those interested or involved in the regulation of digital content markets. With its comprehensive discussion of a wide range of fundamental as well as praxis-oriented questions, it is an essential read for academics, policy makers, members of the content industry as well as consumer representatives.  +
Digital Content Contracts for Consumers +The application of consumer law to digital content contracts encounters a number of obstacles. Some of these are rather typical for digital content markets, e.g., the legal consequences of the classification of digital content as “ goods ” or “ services ” and, more importantly, the absence of general benchmarks to evaluate the conformity of digital content. Other problems, such as the limited usefulness of consumer information and the position of underage consumers, are not as such reserved to digital consumers, but they are amplified in the digital content markets. Moreover, particular attention is paid to the complex relationship between copyright law and consumer law. This paper explores the extent to which consumer (contract) law is fit to address the problems faced by digital consumers wishing to enjoy the benefits of digital content and examines whether the on-going initiatives at national and European level are likely to provide relief. Finally, recommendations for improvement are put forward in cases where the analysis shows that the problems identified are not or are insufficiently solved by these initiatives.  +
Digital Content Services for Consumers: Comparative analysis of the applicable legal frameworks and suggestions for the contours of a model system of consumer protection in relation to digital content services +The Centre for the Study of European Contract Law (CSECL) and the Institute for Information Law (IViR) were commissioned by the European Commission to conduct a study on digital content services for consumers. This report contains the country reports of 9 Member States - Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom - and two legal systems from outside the EU, i.e. Norway and the United States. The country reports contain the responses of national experts to a questionnaire developed by the CSECL and the IViR.  +
Digital Rights Management and Fair Use +The recent controversies surrounding Amazon’s removal of George Orwell’s ‘1984’ from Kindle readers , the BBC’s proposal to encrypt Freeview High Definition (HD) content and Microsoft’s permanent ban on Xbox Live users who have modified or ‘chipped’ their consoles have all served to highlight the debate over Digital Rights Management (DRM) and digital copyright. In particular, these incidents highlight the emerging and novel possibility of ‘remote’ content management resulting from an arbitrary decision made by the relevant rights holder(s). The blocking of content to users in particular raises important tensions between DRM and the defences under the fair use/fair dealing doctrine of copyright law which enables users to make use of copyrighted content for certain purposes. The very goal of copyright law, and the fair dealing doctrine contained therein, is the advancement of knowledge and the creation of new works. Copyright’s exclusive rights facilitate this by providing incentives to create, while fair dealing allows users to engage with creative content; thus forming the basis for inspiration and creation of new works. As such, this amounts to recognition of the role existing works play in the creation of new content. However, these divergent interests have been exacerbated by digital technology. The issue of whether DRM is an appropriate method for regulating digital copyright is open to debate. Indeed, when the idea that ‘the answer to the machine is the machine’ was proposed in 1995 , it is questionable whether such prevention of access and use was envisaged. The fair use/dealing doctrine has been crucial in mediating the tension between copyright law and technology , and has an inherent degree of flexibility in its application. Arguably, with DRM, there is no such flexibility and there exists an inherent conflict between the vagueness of the doctrine and the precise nature of the technological code required for DRMs implementation. The aim of this paper is to outline a coherent definition of DRM and provide a brief background of its legislative history and content. Following from this, the doctrine will be analysed in the context of DRM in order to examine whether such defences can continue to operate; specifically regarding the seemingly irreconcilable differences between the inherent nature of the legal doctrine and the technological (and legal) code of DRM.  +
Digital Rights Management from a Consumer's Perspective +Place the CD in the CD player, computer or car CD player, press “Play” and listen to the music. It can be as simple as that. Or rather it could. Although we may think this is still the case, in reality it is becoming a thing of the past. Anyone who buys a CD today can no longer be certain that it can be played on their computer, that it can even be played the day after tomorrow or more than 30 times, that it can be copied or that the music it contains can be converted into MP3 format. The fact that things are not as simple as they used to be is more and more a question of “fair” Digital Rights Management (DRM). People’s views on what is fair and what is not in this context still vary considerably, depending on whether they are looking from the perspective of rights- holders or consumers. However, all the parties involved, including consumers' representatives on the one hand and the media industry on the other, wholeheartedly agree that DRM can be the basis for new forms of digital services. The economic success of such services depends, however, on whether they are also acceptable for consumers. For this reason, this IRIS plus deals with DRM from the consumer's perspective in an effort to enhance people's understanding of this aspect of DRM  +


Essay: A Transactional View of Property Rights +Property rights and contract law are two of our most basic legal categories. Many legal scholars describe what makes them different; this Essay describes how they work together to promote economic exchange. Incorporating the insights of both "transaction cost" and "new property rights" economics, it identifies two crucial contributions that property rights make to real-world contracting: (1) precontractual liability, or protection for disclosure of sensitive information in the period leading up to contract formation; and (2) enforcement flexibility after a contract is executed, in the form of many subtle but important advantages that accrue to a contracting party who also holds a property right. This Essay argues that property's "transactional" role is growing in importance, as the "new economy" ushers in a more transaction-intensive industrial structure featuring greater numbers of smaller, more specialized firms.  +
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